Voluntary forms of action emerge as alternative answers to shortcomings, deficiency or crisis in the governmental or welfare system in a society. Whether in man-made crises or natural disasters, people are left to their own devices by mis-direction or absence of welfare provisions and services. People act to provide adequate public goods or services when a system is unable to overcome structural shortcomings by means of governmental institutions. Such conjunctures or opportunities create a feeling that individuals are bound by duty and morality to work towards the common good and common goals. Forms of action then concentrate especially on the issues and fields relating to health, caring, religion and education. All of these conjunctures occurred in Turkey in the twentieth century and the Gülen Movement, which was already in place and capable of taking responsibility, emerged to meet many of society’s needs.